The Air Pressure and Tire Pressure Monitoring System, known as TPMS (Tire Pressure Monitoring System), is a technology designed to constantly monitor the air pressure in a vehicle's tires. Its main objective is to alert the driver to any loss of pressure that may affect the performance, safety and efficiency of the tires.

TPMS can come in two main forms:

1. Direct TPMS: This type of system uses pressure sensors installed in each of the tire valves. These sensors measure air pressure in real time and transmit the information to a control unit inside the vehicle. When a tire pressure drops below a preset level, the TPMS activates a warning signal on the vehicle's dashboard, alerting the driver to the low tire pressure.

2. Indirect TPMS: In this type of system, the TPMS uses the vehicle's existing wheel speed sensors, along with data from the braking system, to indirectly calculate tire pressure. If you detect a significant difference between the rotation speed of the wheels, you can infer that there is a low tire pressure. Although indirect TPMS is not as accurate as direct, it is a more economical option for some manufacturers.

Benefits of TPMS:

1. Safety: TPMS is a vital tool for maintaining safety on the road. Inadequate air pressure in tires can cause unstable handling, decrease traction, and increase the risk of accidents. TPMS alerts the driver in a timely manner to any changes in tire pressure, allowing them to take action before they become a serious problem.

2. Fuel Economy: Low air pressure in tires can negatively affect the vehicle's fuel efficiency. By maintaining proper pressure, the TPMS helps optimize fuel consumption and reduce carbon emissions.

3. Longer tire life: Constant monitoring of air pressure allows early tire wear and problems to be detected. By addressing these issues early, you extend tire life and prevent uneven wear.

In many countries, TPMS have become a legal requirement for new vehicles, highlighting their importance in automobile safety and performance. It is essential to heed TPMS warnings and maintain proper tire pressure to ensure safe and efficient driving.